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|Title:||Solar Activity from 2006 to 2014 and Short-term Forecasts of Solar Proton Events Using the ESPERTA Model||Authors:||ALBERTI, TOMMASO
Cliver, E. W.
|Issue Date:||2017||Journal:||THE ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL||Number:||838||Issue:||1||First Page:||59||Abstract:||To evaluate the solar energetic proton (SEP) forecast model of Laurenza et al., here termed ESPERTA, we computed the input parameters (soft X-ray (SXR) fluence and ∼1 MHz radio fluence) for all ≥M2 SXR flares from 2006 to 2014. This database is outside the 1995-2005 interval on which ESPERTA was developed. To assess the difference in the general level of activity between these two intervals, we compared the occurrence frequencies of SXR flares and SEP events for the first six years of cycles 23 (1996 September-2002 September) and 24 (2008 December-2014 December). We found a reduction of SXR flares and SEP events of 40% and 46%, respectively, in the latter period. Moreover, the numbers of ≥M2 flares with high values of SXR and ∼1 MHz fluences (>0.1 J m<SUP>-2</SUP> and >6 × 10<SUP>5</SUP> sfu × minute, respectively) are both reduced by ∼30%. A somewhat larger percentage decrease of these two parameters (∼40% versus ∼30%) is obtained for the 2006-2014 interval in comparison with 1995-2005. Despite these differences, ESPERTA performance was comparable for the two intervals. For the 2006-2014 interval, ESPERTA had a probability of detection (POD) of 59% (19/32) and a false alarm rate (FAR) of 30% (8/27), versus a POD = 63% (47/75) and an FAR = 42% (34/81) for the original 1995-2005 data set. In addition, for the 2006-2014 interval the median (average) warning time was estimated to be ∼2 hr (∼7 hr), versus ∼6 hr (∼9 hr), for the 1995-2005 data set.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/30825||URL:||https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aa5cb8||ISSN:||0004-637X||DOI:||10.3847/1538-4357/aa5cb8||Bibcode ADS:||2017ApJ...838...59A||Fulltext:||open|
|Appears in Collections:||1.01 Articoli in rivista|
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checked on Jun 14, 2021
checked on Jun 14, 2021
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