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|Title:||On the diversity of superluminous supernovae: ejected mass as the dominant factor||Authors:||Nicholl, M.
Smartt, S. J.
Sim, S. A.
Chen, T. -W.
Young, D. R.
Bauer, F. E.
BOTTICELLA, MARIA TERESA
DELLA VALLE, Massimo
ELIAS DE LA ROSA, NANCY DEL CARMEN
Le Guillou, L.
Schmidt, B. P.
|Issue Date:||2015||Journal:||MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY||Number:||452||Issue:||4||First Page:||3869||Abstract:||We assemble a sample of 24 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe). Parameterizing the light-curve shape through rise and decline time-scales shows that the two are highly correlated. Magnetar-powered models can reproduce the correlation, with the diversity in rise and decline rates driven by the diffusion time-scale. Circumstellar interaction models can exhibit a similar rise-decline relation, but only for a narrow range of densities, which may be problematic for these models. We find that SLSNe are approximately 3.5 mag brighter and have light curves three times broader than SNe Ibc, but that the intrinsic shapes are similar. There are a number of SLSNe with particularly broad light curves, possibly indicating two progenitor channels, but statistical tests do not cleanly separate two populations. The general spectral evolution is also presented. Velocities measured from Fe II are similar for SLSNe and SNe Ibc, suggesting that diffusion time differences are dominated by mass or opacity. Flat velocity evolution in most SLSNe suggests a dense shell of ejecta. If opacities in SLSNe are similar to other SNe Ibc, the average ejected mass is higher by a factor 2-3. Assuming κ = 0.1 cm<SUP>2</SUP> g<SUP>-1</SUP>, we estimate a mean (median) SLSN ejecta mass of 10 M<SUB>☉</SUB> (6 M<SUB>☉</SUB>), with a range of 3-30 M<SUB>☉</SUB>. Doubling the assumed opacity brings the masses closer to normal SNe Ibc, but with a high-mass tail. The most probable mechanism for generating SLSNe seems to be the core collapse of a very massive hydrogen-poor star, forming a millisecond magnetar.||Acknowledgments:||We thank B. Metzger for helpful comments that improved the manuscript. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no.  (PI: S. J. Smartt) and STFC grants ST/I001123/1 and ST/L000709/1. MN acknowledges a studentship from DEL. This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935. MF is supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360. SB is partially supported by the PRIN-INAF 2014 with the project Transient Universe: unveiling new types of stellar explosions with PESSTO. NE-R. acknowledges the support from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 267251 ‘Astronomy Fellowships in Italy’ (AstroFIt). Research with SkyMapper was conducted in part by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), through project no. CE110001020. BPS acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council Laureate Fellowship Grant LF0992131. DARK is funded by DNRF. MS acknowledges support from the Royal Society and EU/FP7-ERC grant no. . FEB. acknowledges support by CONICYT through FONDECYT grant 1141218, and ‘EMBIGGEN’ Anillo ACT1101, LG through FONDECYT grant 3140566, and SS through FONDECYT 3140534. LG and SS also acknowledge Basal-CATA PFB-06/2007. FEB, LG and SS acknowledge Project IC120009 ‘Millennium Institute of Astrophysics’ (MAS) of Iniciativa Científica Milenio del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. The Yale group thanks the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy, Grant no. DE-FG02-92ER40704 and the Provosts Office at Yale for their support. AG-Y acknowledges support by the EU/FP7 via ERC grant 307260; ISF, Minerva, and Weizmann-UK grants; as well as the Quantum Universe I-Core Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and the Israel Science Foundation and the Kimmel Award. KM acknowledges support from a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship, within the 7th European Community Framework Programme (FP7).||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/23895||URL:||https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/452/4/3869/1059231||ISSN:||0035-8711||DOI:||10.1093/mnras/stv1522||Bibcode ADS:||2015MNRAS.452.3869N||Fulltext:||open|
|Appears in Collections:||1.01 Articoli in rivista|
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