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|Title:||SN 2009ip at late times - an interacting transient at +2 years||Authors:||Fraser, Morgan
Smartt, Stephen J.
BOTTICELLA, MARIA TERESA
Bauer, Franz Erik
ELIAS DE LA ROSA, NANCY DEL CARMEN
Howell, D. Andrew
Le Guillou, Laurent
Walker, Emma S.
Young, David R.
|Issue Date:||2015||Journal:||MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY||Number:||453||Issue:||4||First Page:||3886||Abstract:||We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the interacting transient SN 2009ip taken during the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons. We characterize the photometric evolution as a steady and smooth decline in all bands, with a decline rate that is slower than expected for a solely <SUP>56</SUP>Co-powered supernova at late phases. No further outbursts or eruptions were seen over a two year period from 2012 December until 2014 December. SN 2009ip remains brighter than its historic minimum from pre-discovery images. Spectroscopically, SN 2009ip continues to be dominated by strong, narrow (≲2000 km s<SUP>- 1</SUP>) emission lines of H, He, Ca, and Fe. While we make tenuous detections of [Fe II] λ7155 and [O I] λλ6300, 6364 lines at the end of 2013 June and the start of 2013 October, respectively, we see no strong broad nebular emission lines that could point to a core-collapse origin. In general, the lines appear relatively symmetric, with the exception of our final spectrum in 2014 May, when we observe the appearance of a redshifted shoulder of emission at +550 km s<SUP>- 1</SUP>. The lines are not blueshifted, and we see no significant near- or mid-infrared excess. From the spectroscopic and photometric evolution of SN 2009ip until 820 d after the start of the 2012a event, we still see no conclusive evidence for core-collapse, although whether any such signs could be masked by ongoing interaction is unclear.||Acknowledgments:||We thank the referee for a careful reading of the manuscript and helpful comments. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern hemisphere, Chile as part of ESO programmes 291.D-5010 and 092.D-0586, and as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey), ESO program 188.D-3003/191.D-0935. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope , which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA (Proposal ID 90255). Based on observations (GS-2013A-DD-3 and GS-2012B-Q-86) obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. We wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. We thank the directors of the Gemini Observatory and ESO for their crucial allocations of discretionary time to this project. We thank Emma Reilly, Jon Mauerhan, Nathan Smith, Ori Fox and Raffaella Margutti for helpful discussions at the CAASTRO ‘Supernova 2014' workshop. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360. RK acknowledges funding from STFC (ST/L000709/1). Part of this research was conducted by the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), through project number CE110001020. SJS acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement no.  and STFC grants ST/I001123/1 and ST/L000709/1. AMG acknowledges financial support by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y competitividad (MINECO) grant ESP2013-41268-R. AG-Y is supported by an EU/FP7-ERC grant no. , ‘The Quantum Universe' I-Core program by the Israeli Committee for planning and budgeting and the ISF, GIF, Minerva, ISF and Weizmann-UK grants, and the Kimmel award. FEB acknowledges support from CONICYT-Chile (Basal-CATA PFB-06/2007, FONDECYT 1141218, PCCI 130074) and Project IC120009 ‘Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS)' funded by the Iniciativa Científica Milenio del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y Turismo. SH is funded from a Minerva ARCHES award of the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). AP and SB are partially supported by the PRIN-INAF 2011 with the project ‘Transient Universe: from ESO Large to PESSTO'. NER acknowledges the support from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 267251 ‘Astronomy Fellowships in Italy' (AstroFIt).||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/23896||URL:||https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/453/4/3886/2593723||ISSN:||0035-8711||DOI:||10.1093/mnras/stv1919||Bibcode ADS:||2015MNRAS.453.3886F||Fulltext:||open|
|Appears in Collections:||1.01 Articoli in rivista|
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