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|Title:||A 1.9 Earth Radius Rocky Planet and the Discovery of a Non-transiting Planet in the Kepler-20 System||Authors:||Buchhave, Lars A.
Dressing, Courtney D.
Lundkvist, Mia S.
BONOMO, ALDO STEFANO
Collier Cameron, Andrew
Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M.
Haywood, Raphaëlle D.
Johnson, John Asher
Latham, David W.
MOLINARI, Emilio Carlo
Phillips, David F.
|Issue Date:||2016||Journal:||THE ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL||Number:||152||Issue:||6||First Page:||160||Abstract:||Kepler-20 is a solar-type star (V = 12.5) hosting a compact system of five transiting planets, all packed within the orbital distance of Mercury in our own solar system. A transition from rocky to gaseous planets with a planetary transition radius of ∼1.6 R_E has recently been proposed by several articles in the literature. Kepler-20b (R_p ∼ 1.9 R_E) has a size beyond this transition radius; however, previous mass measurements were not sufficiently precise to allow definite conclusions to be drawn regarding its composition. We present new mass measurements of three of the planets in the Kepler-20 system that are facilitated by 104 radial velocity measurements from the HARPS-N spectrograph and 30 archival Keck/HIRES observations, as well as an updated photometric analysis of the Kepler data and an asteroseismic analysis of the host star (M_star = 0.948+/- 0.051 M☉ and R_star = 0.964+/- 0.018 R☉). Kepler-20b is a 1.868_(-0.034)^(+0.066) R_E planet in a 3.7 day period with a mass of 9.70_(-1.44)^(+1.41) M_E, resulting in a mean density of 8.2_(-1.3)^(+1.5) g/cm^3, indicating a rocky composition with an iron-to-silicate ratio consistent with that of the Earth. This makes Kepler-20b the most massive planet with a rocky composition found to date. Furthermore, we report the discovery of an additional non-transiting planet with a minimum mass of 19.96_(-3.61)^(+3.08) M_E and an orbital period of ∼34 days in the gap between Kepler-20f (P ∼ 11 days) and Kepler-20d (P ∼ 78 days). -- Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofísica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/25285||URL:||https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160||ISSN:||0004-6256||DOI:||10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/160||Bibcode ADS:||2016AJ....152..160B||Fulltext:||open|
|Appears in Collections:||1.01 Articoli in rivista|
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checked on Jun 21, 2021
checked on Jun 21, 2021
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