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|Title:||The rise-time of Type II supernovae||Authors:||González-Gaitán, S.
Anderson, J. P.
Howell, D. A.
de Jaeger, T.
Baklanov, P. V.
Blinnikov, S. I.
|Issue Date:||2015||Journal:||MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY||Number:||451||Issue:||2||First Page:||2212||Abstract:||We investigate the early-time light curves of a large sample of 223 Type II supernovae (SNe II) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Supernova Legacy Survey. Having a cadence of a few days and sufficient non-detections prior to explosion, we constrain rise-times, i.e. the durations from estimated first to maximum light, as a function of effective wavelength. At rest-frame g<SUP>'</SUP> band (λ<SUB>eff</SUB> = 4722 Å), we find a distribution of fast rise-times with median of (7.5 ± 0.3) d. Comparing these durations with analytical shock models of Rabinak & Waxman and Nakar & Sari, and hydrodynamical models of Tominaga et al., which are mostly sensitive to progenitor radius at these epochs, we find a median characteristic radius of less than 400 solar radii. The inferred radii are on average much smaller than the radii obtained for observed red supergiants (RSG). Investigating the post-maximum slopes as a function of effective wavelength in the light of theoretical models, we find that massive hydrogen envelopes are still needed to explain the plateaus of SNe II. We therefore argue that the SN II rise-times we observe are either (a) the shock cooling resulting from the core collapse of RSG with small and dense envelopes, or (b) the delayed and prolonged shock breakout of the collapse of an RSG with an extended atmosphere or embedded within pre-SN circumstellar material.||Acknowledgments:||We thank T. José Moriya for useful discussions. This work is based on observations of the SNLS obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the CFHT which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. Funding for the creation and distribution of the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web site is http://www.sdss.org/ . The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, Cambridge University, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington. SG, LG and FB acknowledge support from CONICYT through FONDECYT grants 3130680, 3140566 and 3120227. Support for SG, LG, FB, CG, FF, GP, TdJ and MH is provided by the Ministry of Economy, Development and Tourism's Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. MS acknowledges support from the Royal Society. PB is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation grant IZ73Z0_152485 SCOPES and SB by the Russian Science Foundation Grant No. 14-12-00203.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/26497||URL:||https://academic.oup.com/mnras/article/451/2/2212/1749558||ISSN:||0035-8711||DOI:||10.1093/mnras/stv1097||Bibcode ADS:||2015MNRAS.451.2212G||Fulltext:||open|
|Appears in Collections:||1.01 Articoli in rivista|
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