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|Title:||Venus Atmospheric Thermal Structure and Radiative Balance||Authors:||Limaye, Sanjay S.
|Issue Date:||2018||Journal:||SPACE SCIENCE REVIEWS||Number:||214||Issue:||5||First Page:||102||Abstract:||From the discovery that Venus has an atmosphere during the 1761 transit by M. Lomonosov to the current exploration of the planet by the Akatsuki orbiter, we continue to learn about the planet's extreme climate and weather. This chapter attempts to provide a comprehensive but by no means exhaustive review of the results of the atmospheric thermal structure and radiative balance since the earlier works published in Venus and Venus II books from recent spacecraft and Earth based investigations and summarizes the gaps in our current knowledge. There have been no in-situ measurements of the deep Venus atmosphere since the flights of the two VeGa balloons and landers in 1985 (Sagdeev et al., Science 231:1411-1414, 1986). Thus, most of the new information about the atmospheric thermal structure has come from different remote sensing (Earth based and spacecraft) techniques using occultations (solar infrared, stellar ultraviolet and orbiter radio occultations), spectroscopy and microwave, short wave and thermal infrared emissions. The results are restricted to altitudes higher than about 40 km, except for one investigation of the near surface static stability inferred by Meadows and Crisp (J. Geophys. Res. 101:4595-4622, 1996) from 1 μm observations from Earth. Little information about the lower atmospheric structure is possible below about 40 km altitude from radio occultations due to large bending angles. The gaps in our knowledge include spectral albedo variations over time, vertical variation of the bulk composition of the atmosphere (mean molecular weight), the identity, properties and abundances of absorbers of incident solar radiation in the clouds. The causes of opacity variations in the nightside cloud cover and vertical gradients in the deep atmosphere bulk composition and its impact on static stability are also in need of critical studies. The knowledge gaps and questions about Venus and its atmosphere provide the incentive for obtaining the necessary measurements to understand the planet, which can provide some clues to learn about terrestrial exoplanets.||URI:||http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12386/28302||URL:||https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11214-018-0525-2||ISSN:||0038-6308||DOI:||10.1007/s11214-018-0525-2||Bibcode ADS:||2018SSRv..214..102L||Fulltext:||open|
|Appears in Collections:||1.01 Articoli in rivista|
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